Mahina at top of sky at sunrise, soon veiled by clouds. Morning in upland forest of Puna at Kea‘au-Kahauale‘a boundary: intensely showery with unusually strong, chilly makani coming from the north-northeast, shaking treetops, raining ‘ōhi‘a leaves and twigs. Occasional visits of pairs and small flocks of ‘apapane to sip lehua. Manono and ‘ōlapa fruiting, naupaka kuahiwi flowering, new fronds of hāpu‘u i‘i, hāpu‘u pulu, and ‘āma‘u moderately unfurling. Noon at kai: edge of same southern boundary of Kea‘au, but with Waikahekahenui: rough sea, thick clouds, powerful wind-driven rain; noio gliding along cliffs and feeding at sea.